to filter out the majority of solar UV radiation that can reach the Earth’s surface. Unfortunately, the ozone layer is currently under threat by man-made chemicals that remain in the atmosphere from their widespread use prior to being banned throughout most of the developed world in January 1996. This has led to a large increase in harmful UVB radiation that is reaching the Earth’s surface¹. The increased level of UVB radiation on the Earth’s surface is causing a number of harmful effects on humanity, the environment, and on the Earth’s ecosystems and living creatures.
- Human Health Impacts: Eyes, Immune System, and Skin
- Eye Health: Increased risk of damage to the lens, cornean, retina, and conjunctiva of the eyes. Increased risk of developing cataracts (lens clouding), blindness, and other eye diseases.
- Immune System: An overexposure to UV radiation can lead to a weakening of the immune system. Not only can a weakened immune system increase vulnerability to developing infections, but a weakened immune system also potentially leads to an increased vulnerability to skin cancer.
- Skin: Increased risk of skin cancer, sunburns, and premature aging².
- Impacts on Plants
Such negative impacts include:
- A suppression of plant growth.
- Damage to plant form, development, growth, metabolism, and nutrient distribution, which can all influence plant competitive balance, herbivors, resistance to diseases, and biogeochemical cycles.
- An alteration of photosynthetic processes in seedlings.
- Internal changes in anatomical features and pigmentation.
- Losses of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil, which higher plants rely on for nitrogen sources³.
- Impacts on Marine and Aquatic Ecosystems
- High levels of solar UVB radiation decrease the orientation mechanisms and motility of phytoplankton (and therefore, their productivity and survival), which are the foundation of aquatic food webs, thereby impacting the entire marine ecosystem. Due to their important role in aquatic photosynthesizers, an overall global loss in phytoplankton populations would also reduce their capacity to serve as a global sink for atmospheric carbon emissions.
- Inflicting damage to the early developmental stages of fish, shrimp, crab, amphibians, and other animals, thereby negatively impacting their population levels and the population levels of those organisms that prey upon them.
- A loss of biodiversity in aquatic and marine ecosystems due to increased levels of UVB radiation is likely to reduce yields for fisheries around the world³.
- Impacts on Biogeochemical Cycles
- Impacts on Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Ecosystems
- Impacts on Animals
- Impacts on Materials