July 4, 2017 Intensive Agriculture Written by Greentumble
Advantages and disadvantages of using biotechnology in agriculture
We are often inspired by nature, from art

and literature to engineering and medicine. The science of biotechnology also looks up to processes in nature to transform living systems and organisms and develop new (perhaps better) products out of them.

According to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, biotechnology is “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use [1].”

One of the earliest applications of biotechnology, in its simplest form, was in agriculture.

For centuries, farmers manipulated plants and animals through selective breeding in order to create and enhance desired traits. As the science of plant breeding was further developed, the 20th century saw a big change as we were able to more quickly pick out traits such as increased yield, pest resistance, drought resistance, and herbicide resistance. But our technology has since then moved even further, which resulted in first food product produced through plant biotechnology in 1990.

The growth of agricultural biotechnology, also known as agritech, was such that by 2003, seven million farmers were utilizing biotech crops, with more than 85% of these farmers located in developing countries [2].

Is agritech a technological revolution which we should be welcoming or are there hidden risks of artificially changing foodstuff?

The clear difference between agritech and traditional practices used by farmers to enhance beneficial traits is the fact that scientific tools and techniques, including genetic engineering, molecular markers, molecular diagnostics, vaccines, and tissue culture, are used to modify living organisms [2].

In other words, it is the fact that this is considered a scientific and very invasive process compared to traditional practices.

But as the Economist noted in a recent article, “If agriculture is to continue to feed the world, it needs to become more like manufacturing [3].” And this is what agritech allows for.

With population rising, it is estimated that by 2050 we will be heading for a great food crisis, as the world will need at least 70% more food.

Plant tissue growing in a laboratory

The 9.7 billion inhabitants of planet Earth will not only require more food by 2050, but also better food, as by then most are likely to have middling incomes [3]. Agritech can help address this by increasing the productivity of crops and thereby meeting our nutrition needs.

This is particularly important given the increased frequency of extreme weather phenomena as well as the difficult conditions under which many nations need to grow food.

One example of biotechnology products could be the development of drought resistant crops [4]. By changing the genes of some crops, it is possible to grow them in unfavorable conditions and different types of soil, which means that countries that suffer from drought might be able to expand their agricultural activities as well as use land where it was previously not possible to cultivate anything.

Advantages of using biotechnology in agriculture

The use of biotechnology in the field of agriculture does not only allow for crops to grow more and under more difficult circumstances, it can literally make them better.

In other words, science allows us to introduce specific genes to increase the nutritional value of crops.

This has been attempted with rice, one of the world’s most eaten food, where scientists used genetic engineering to produce rice rich in vitamin A. What scientists noticed is that while rice already contains the genes that produce vitamin A, these get turned off as the rice grow; so what the scientists did was to reverse the process so that the vitamin A genes get activated during the growth [5].

As such, agritech can help in resolving hunger but also malnutrition. This is therefore not a solution we can afford to ignore when so many hundreds of people, many young children, suffer from malnutrition.

Proponents of agritech, however, believe that their technology can introduce truly sustainable farming practices and even reduce the environmental impact of agriculture.

For example, genetically modified seeds can have improved resistance to germination failure. This allows farmers to plant these seeds without having to till the soil, which is a practice that disturbs beneficial soil organisms, results in the loss of nutrients from soils by bringing them to the surface from where they get washed off by the rain, and releases carbon trapped in the soil organic matter.

What is more, supporters of agritech also believe that their technology can also reduce waste and optimize the food available to us in supermarkets.

This is because genetically modified produce can be given properties that allow it to be harvested when ripe but then the ripening process can be stopped which means consumers can have access to fresher produce with a longer shelf life.

This also minimizes the amount of food that could go back before even reaching retailers [6].

But if there are so many benefits of agricultural biotechnology, what is holding back further pick-up of these practices by farmers?

Plant tissue under the microscope

Disadvantages of using biotechnology in agriculture

In the first place, there is a knee-jerk reaction against genetic manipulation.

While we have genetically modified our crops and breeds for centuries, there is some hesitation about the more intrusive albeit more targeted way biotechnology does this.

Another aspect that is worth noting is that this genetic engineering is so extreme that we are essentially taking genes from one organism and inserting them into a completely different organism; in all probability, this would not have happened using the traditional approaches used by farmers before.

Perhaps part of the apprehension is owed to the fact that genetically modified food has only been available since the early 1990s.

Given the relatively short time they have been cultivated, scientists cannot draw firm conclusions about their potential long term effects to the environment and health. However, some scientists have found that genetically modified plants have altered the life span, disease process and cognitive abilities of insects that feed on these plants [6].

The extensive use of agritech has also created some fear among agriculturalists that it could lead to a decrease in biodiversity. If farmers were to find a particular crop more profitable and easy to grow, farmers would likely switch to this more profitable crop and abandon other varieties.

The modified crop would dominate and other local varieties would be marginalized or even grow extinct. Biodiversity loss is a dangerous trend as it weakens the health of our ecosystems, puts food security at risk and minimizes our ability respond to climate change [5].

From a human health point of view, scientists are concerned that genetically modified food may create new allergens. This is why the United States Food and Drug Administration regulations for genetically modified food also includes extensive allergenic tests.

border-line-red

Even with all the evidence on the table, it is difficult to take a firm decision about the application of biotechnology in agriculture.

What is certain is that we need to remain vigilant regarding the health and environmental implications. If agritech companies are truly committed to helping people around the globe to escape hunger and support sustainable farming practices, then they should certainly acknowledge the need to ensure that biotechnology products deliver on that without compromising our environment or health.


References

[1] https://www.cbd.int/convention/text/
[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agricultural_biotechnology
[3] http://www.economist.com/technology-quarterly/2016-06-09/factory-fresh
[4] http://theworldbehindenvirobiotech.weebly.com/advantages-and-disadvantages.html
[5] http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/genetic/agricultural-biotechnology1.htm
[6] https://goo.gl/RfkoS7